The Baca / Douglas Genealogy and Family History Blog

29 July 2008

Ancestry and DNA Article

My cousin Maurine Pool is a columnist and editor for the Orange County Register in California. Recently, she wrote an "Q and A" article for her paper on genealogy and DNA testing. Below is the link:

Roots, the Pop Version

In it, she interviews the public-relations director for She asks him questions about conventional genealogical research, DNA research, and other items such as Barack Obama's lineage. It's worth a read.

28 July 2008

Genealogy Fun

Here's something funny I found on the blogsphere:

Genealogy Roots Blog: 20 Things That Make Genealogy Fun

Check out numbers 2 and 4. They apply to many New Mexicans.

27 July 2008

Conflict in Socorro, New Mexico

Recently, I've been researching the territorial period history of Socorro, New Mexico. I was looking for information to use on my Zimmerly presentation and my Pedro Antonio Baca article.

I've been reading two books: "The Territorial History of Socorro, New Mexico" by Bruce Ashcroft (El Paso: University of Texas at El Paso, 1988) and "The Incident of New Mexico's Nightriders" by Bob L'Aloge (Sunnyside, WA: BJS Brand Books, 1992.)Both books paint a portrait of a town in suffering from racial tensions and conflict.

Socorro was an old Spanish town that was re-settled in 1816. Nothing much changed with the Mexican revolution of 1821, except that now all the Spaniards became Mexicans. Another change was that it became legal for Americans and other foreigners to come to the New Mexico. In 1841, Texas claimed everything east of the Rio Grande as their own. When Texans crossed the Rio Grande, they were captured by Mexican soldiers. Enemy prisoners were brought into Socorro, and at least one of them wrote a scathing description of the town.

The Texas invasion was the precursor of the Mexican-American War. That war began in 1846, and New Mexico was easily subdued by American forces. The Mexican governor of New Mexico escaped to Mexico, and an American governor was put in his place - at first it was a military governor, and then a civilian governor ran New Mexico. By 1850, New Mexico was a territory of the United States.

Troops were stationed in Socorro at first, and then moved to nearby Fort Conrad in August 1851. However, the poorly constructed fort was abandoned and troops moved on March 31, 1854 to Fort Craig a few miles away.

After the Civil War started, Confederate troops advanced up the Rio Grande deep into New Mexico. Union soldiers were sent to Ft. Craig to fight off the Confederates. American, foreign-born, and native New Mexican soldiers fought side by side against the invading enemy army. The Battle of Valverde was fought in 1862 just a few miles northwest of the fort at the bottom of a mesa that lent its name to the skirmish. The Confederacy won the battle, and a makeshift hospital was set up in Socorro.

The Confederates marched up towards Santa Fe. They would meet Union soldiers in a few minor skirmishes, and fought one last battle at Glorietta. On paper, it could be argued that the Confederates won the battle. However, they were so devastated by the loss of supplies and men that they had to retreat back to Texas. Union troops from Ft. Craig shadowed them as they left, essentially escorting them out the territory.

Due to the Confederate invasion, the Union sent troops from California to protect New Mexico and Arizona. The California Column, as it was called, consisted of over 2,000 men. Many were stationed at Ft. Craig. Some of these soldiers moved to Socorro after they mustered out of the army; a few even married local women.

Many former soldiers and other newcomers began etching out a living in Socorro. In the 1880s, Socorro experienced an economic boom. Mines opened up in the area surrounding Socorro, including Carthage near San Antonio, New Mexico, and Kelly near Magdalena. Billings Smelter was built at the foot of the Socorro Mountains just west of Socorro, in a settlement called Park City. Most of the ore mined in the area was processed in this smelter.

Many people moved to Socorro and the surrounding villages to take part in this boom. Flour Mills were built to service not only the local population, but also military installations. Stores were opened in the town. Everything seemed good in Socorro. Both native New Mexican and newcomer seemed to do well in the town. However, there was tension below the surface.

Many of the Mexican population felt resentful towards the newcomers, and the newcomers felt that the Mexicans were holding back progress. When a local newspaper editor was murdered by three Mexicans cousins, the tension came to a head.

A.M. Conklin was the editor of the Socorro Sun. On Christmas Eve 1880 he was attending a service at the Methodist Church in Socorro. He was asked by parishioners to stop a group of Mexican men from bothering some American women in the church. He did, and when he left the church he was ambushed by three Baca cousins: Antonio, Onofre and Abram. One of the cousins shot him dead.

The sheriff, who was related to the Baca cousins, refused to apprehend the Bacas. Therefore, some of Anglo men decided to form a vigilante group. Called the Socorro Committee of Safety, this group decided to seek justice for the murder. Former Civil War soldier Colonel Ethan Eaton led the group. They apprehended, or had others help them apprehend, all three Baca cousins. Antonio Jaramillo Baca was shot while trying to escape, Onofre Baca was lynched by the committee, and Abram Baca was brought to trial. After Abram was found not guilty, he jumped on a horse and high tailed out of town. Good thing, too, because the Socorro Committee of Safety had just begun their reign of terror.

In three years, the committee lynched another five men and threatened many others. Not all were Mexicans, in fact most were not. Only two were Hispanic. However, it did leave a strong tinge of racial tension in the town. The vigilantes demanded that all "Americans" in the town support the committee. It obviously created a rift between "Americans" and "Mexicans". The committee did not believe the native New Mexicans were up to the task to meting out justice, while the natives believed that the newcomers were interlopers trying to take over the town. Both may have been right.

This period of Socorro history is fascinating. It really exemplifies the "wild west" mentality in the town. Various governors tacitly, and sometimes even openly, supported the Socorro Committee of Safety. The committee ruled Socorro for a short period of time. Although the lynching was done by masked men, and various corner's reports stated that the men were hanged by "persons unknown", everyone knew who was doing it. Often large crowds watched the lynchings, and local officials and prominent members of the community took part in the events.


Ashcroft, Bruce, The Territorial History of New Mexico, (El Paso: The University of Texas at El Paso, 1988)

L'Aloge, Bob, The Incident of New Mexico's Nightriders, (Sunnyside, WA: BJS Brand Books, 1992.)

Marshall, Michael P. and Henry J. Walt, Prehistory and History of a Rio Grande Province, (Santa Fe: New Mexico Historic Preservation Program, 1984.)

Miller, Darlis A., The California Column in New Mexico, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1982.)

Taylor, John, Bloody Valverde: A Civil War Battle on the Rio Grande, Febrary 21, 1862, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.)

When I wrote this post last year, I neglected to include one source of information. Although I found most of the information for the article from the sources mentioned above, one piece of information was found in another source: the fact that the three Bacas implicated in the murder of A.M. Conklin were probably cousins, rather than brothers. This information, and their link to famous lawman/outlaw Elfego Baca can be found in the following article:

Gonzales, David, and Jonathan A. Ortega, "Onofre Baca - Socorro Lynching Victim and his Brother Elfego Baca - an American Legend", Herencia, 3 (January 1995), 1-3.

For more information about the controversy over this article, click on the following link: Socorro Spanish Methodist Church. Make sure to also read the comments posted to the article.

Updated: 10/04/09

26 July 2008

August 2008 New Mexico Genealogical Society Program

Saturday, August 16, 2008, 10:30 AM
Botts Hall, Albuquerque Special Collections Library
423 Edith NE, Albuquerque NM (NW Corner of Edith and Central)

William Litchman, Ph.D.
Presents the second part of his workshop

Researching at the Courthouse:
Deeds, Wills, Titles and Other Records, Part II

Dr. Litchman presents the second part of a workshop that he began in September 2007. This will be an in-depth exploration of legal records that are essential to genealogical research. He is a thorough researcher and an entertaining speaker. We are happy to welcome him back.

As always, certain books published by NMGS will be on sale during the program.Please visit the NMGS Press web page at for a full listing of NMGS books.

This program is free and open to the public.

For more information about our programs, please visit our website at

20 July 2008

San Miguel Church, c. 1920

Here is a photo that I found on the digital archives of the Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico. It is a postcard that shows the San Miguel Chuch of Socorro, New Mexico, c. 1920.

Copyright disclaimer from the the CSR website:

"Copyright 2005 The University of New Mexico. All Rights Reserved. You may print, reproduce and use the information in, and retrieve files containing publications or images from, The University of New Mexico's WWW documents for non-commercial, personal, or educational purposes only, provided that you (i) do not modify such information, and (ii) include any copyright notice originally included with such information and this notice in all such copies."

Title: Church of San Miguel,
Reference URL:,414

Recap of Zimmerly Family Presentation, NMGS

Yesterday, July 19, 2008, I did a presentation for the New Mexico Genealogical Society on the Zimmerly Family. Click on this link to the NMGS Blog to read more about it.

If you would like to find out more about the Zimmerly family, do a search on this blog, or simply click on this link!

13 July 2008

Socorro County Records

Recently, I've been searching Socorro County 19th century deed and tax assessment records. The Albuquerque Special Collections Library has a number of these records on microfilm. However, I wasn't finding some records at the library, so I checked "Genealogical Resources in New Mexico: Third Edition" by Karen Stein Daniel, CGSM. This is a fantastic book for anyone who is doing New Mexico research. It has an extensive listing of where to find church, county and other records.

It's not expensive, either. To buy a copy, go to the NMGS Press webpage at this link and order book E-5. The book is only $7.50 for NMGS members, $15.00 for non-members. If you have the 1st or 2nd edition of the book, you find that the 3rd edition is even more comprehensive that its predecessors.

Genealogical Resources for Socorro County

Many records can be found at the Socorro County Courthouse:

Socorro County
County Courthouse
PO Box 1, Socorro, NM 87801-0327]
Ph: 505-835-0589; Fax 505-835-4629

There are also finding aids online that can be used to find records that are not at the courthouse. These may be found at the Online Archive of New Mexico. Two collections are at the New Mexico State Records Center and Archives, Santa Fe. These are:

* Records of the United States Territorial and New Mexico District courts for Socorro County, 1851-1933. MS 1976-031. Click this link to access the finding aid.

* Socorro County, N.M. Records, 1851-1935. MS 1974-029. Click this link to access the finding aid.

Socorro was created in 1852 as an original New Mexico county. All of Catron (est.1921) and Sierra (est.1884) Counties, and parts of Lincoln (est. 1869)and Torrance (est.1903) Counties were once part of Socorro County. Therefore, some records for these other counties may be found in the Socorro County archives.

Source: Daniel, Karen Stein, CGsm, Genealogical Resources in New Mexico: Third Edition (Albuquerque: New Mexico Genealogical Society, 2007), pp. 18-23.

10 July 2008

Juan Jose Baca Store and House

Nancy Lopez sent me the photos below of the Juan Jose Baca Store in Socorro, NM. I'm not exactly sure where she got them, but it was probably either the Library of Congress or Denver Public Library sites.

From the Socorro: A Historic Survey:

The Territorial sytle was introduced in New Mexico by the U.S. Army in the construction of their forts and by newly arrived easteners, who were familiar with the Greek Revival style. The influence of the Greek Revival, though it arrived in New Mexico after it had peaked in the East, continued to be used in its indigenous form for the rest of the century. It is still popular as the Territorial Revival style.

In the early Spanish/Mexican period, commercial stores were not separate entites. Business was conducted in a room of the house; eventually, some of these rooms became stores. The Juan Jose Baca store and residence ..., the principal example of this development, has an elaborate overhanging balcony. In the late nineteenth century, it also had a wood false front....

Conron, John P., Socorro: A Historic Survey (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1980), p. 13.

The Juan Jose Baca House is still standing. It was used as a pizza parlor and micro-brewery in the early 2000s. The business has since moved.

Juan Jose Baca is not directly related to me, but he may be from the same Baca families that I'm descended from who came to Socorro from Belen in early 1800s.

Another Photo Essay from Nancy Lopez

My distant cousin Nancy Lopez sent me a link to a photo essay that she did called "New Mexico Vintage Photos." Again, she found some great old pictures of New Mexico, and wrote an essay about the history of lodging and the railroad in New Mexico (among other things.) It's a great page (actually, it's five pages.) Check it out at this link.

09 July 2008

Photos of New Mexico

I discovered that a distant cousin of mine, Nancy Lopez (not the golfer), has a blog called CyBeRGaTa. I met her on-line a couple of years ago - she discovered one of my sites - and I've talked to her in person at least a time or two.

Anyway, she has a post called "Photos and Thoughts, Pie Town and Penasco, New Mexico". The post contains a number of photos that she found at the Library of Congress website include those of Alburquerque (Albuquerque), Penasco, Pie Town (which was known as "Norman's Place" at one time), and Magdalena. I love the stories that she tells with the photos.

Check out the photo of the Albuqueque Heights in 1943. I live in that area now. It's much bigger now than it used to be.

08 July 2008

Photos of Estanislao Chavez and Family

It seems like recently I'm posting more articles about people who are not directly related to me. Jeanette from Hawaii, who sent me stories about Estanislao Chavez, has now sent me photos of her late husband's ancestors. She asked me to post these in order that other family members may find them. Jeanette got these photos from her husband's Aunt Cosette Lowe of Santa Fe.

Estanislao V. and Ellen (Olsen) Chavez in their law office

Estanislao V. Chavez

Jesus Maria and Luz (Torres) Chavez

According to Jeanette, Jesus and Luz were Estanislao's parents. Jesus was born in Belen in 1831, while Luz was born in Socorro in 1840.

David and Monica (Torres) Montoya and Their Son

My cousin Maurine Pool once again has supplied me with another photograph. When I was collecting photos for the Torres Reunion, Maurine sent me images of all of Crespin and Andreita (Trujillo) Torres' children, save one: Monica. However, she found the photograph below of Monica with her husband and child.

Monica (Torres) and David Montoya, with their infant son, Juan Jose.

This photo was taken in 1896, before Monica's death. Originally, I speculated that Monica may have died in childbirth with her son, but as we can see she is very much alive in this photo. She probably died soon afterwards.

For more about the Torres family, click on the following posts:

* Crespin Torres and Andreita Trujillo's Children

* More Torres Family Pictures

* The Torres Family Reunion Mini-Blog

07 July 2008

Samuel C. Meek

Samuel C. Meek served in the same Regiment as my 2nd great grandfather Samuel Zimmerly, but in a different company: 1st Regiment of California Infantry, Company G. I'm not exactly sure who Meek was, but I believe he was involved in the political history of Socorro. I know that he had a street named after him in Socorro: Meek St.

I discovered an affadavit with his signature in the widow's pension of my 2nd great grandmother Paubla (Torres) Zimmerly. I find it interesting because 1.) it shows that Zimmerly had some contact with his old Civil War buddies, and 2.) that it gives a brief descriptions of Meek's and Zimmerly's movements after being discharged. The only thing that confuses me is that Meek says that he knew Zimmerly since August 1861 until the day of Zimmerly's death. This would be true only if he knew Zimmerly before Zimmerly enlisted. Zimmerly enlisted on October 9, 1861. Meek may be mistaken, or maybe they did know each other before October. It's worth looking into.

General Affidavit

State Terry. of New Mexico, County of Socorro, ss:

In the matter of Mrs. Paula Zimmerly Widow of Samuel Zimmerly late a ___ in Co. B of the 1” Reg’t of Cal. Infr. Vols., for Widows Pension.

On this ___ day of January, A.D. 1892, personally appeared before me a ___ in and for the aforesaid County, duly authorized to administer oaths, Samuel C. Meek, aged 55 years, a resident of Socorro, in the County of Socorro and State Terry. of New Mexico whose Postoffice address is Socorro, Socorro County, N.M. and well known to me to be reputable and entitled to credit, and who, being duly sworn, declared in relations to the aforesaid case as follows:

(Note: Affiant should state his means of knowing the facts which he testifies.)

I knew Samuel Zimmerly from August 1861 until the day of his death, having served Three years in The same Regiment with him, to August 31st 1864. I reenlisted, and he came to Socorro, and I was at Los Pinos New Mex. working as Pack Saddler in September 1866 when he was married. I came to Socorro on the 6th day of January 1867 to live, and we lived as citizens of the town of Socorro until his death occurred on the 20th day of November AD 1887. I know That when I first knew him, he was not married, nor did not marry until Sept 29th 1866 when he was married to Miss Paula Torres, a maid, and daughter of Ricardo Torres & wife Gertrude Padilla de Torres.

affiant further declare (sic) that he has no interest in said case and is not concerned in its prosecution.


If affiant signs by mark, two persons who can write sign here.

Samuel C. Meek
Signature of Affiant.

National Archives, Record Group 15 (Veterans Administration), invalid pension, app # 550,153; widow’s pension, app # 441,675, certif..# 345,600.

04 July 2008

Estanislao V. Chavez and Family

Sometimes people ask me why I am into genealogy. It seems like such a lonely hobby in which you spend countless hours compiling names and dates from crumbling documents and microfilm. Well, that's not true. There are many interesting ancestrial stories out there.

Another complaint about genealogy is that genealogist are only interested in their own families. Well, that not true. Although I do spend a considerable amount of time researching my own family, I also love to read about other families, too. So when Jeannette from Hawaii sent me stories about her late husband's family, I was intrigued. I asked her if I could publish it on my blog in order to share it with my readers. She agreed.

Below is from an e-mail that she sent me yesterday, in response to a NMGS eNewsletter that I sent out:

My husband’s maternal grand father, Estanislao Vito Chavez was born in Socorro in 1862, and there are many Baca’s in his line as well. Miguel Laris, my spouse, passed away last July, but I am still into Genealogy. Too bad I live so far away, as I’m always interested in information to pass down to our family about Socorro and the surrounding area. We did visit there some years back and spent a lot of time researching his line. The following is written up on Grandpa Chavez as he was fairly prominent, during his time. My husband’s mother was from his 2nd marriage to Ellen Olsen, whose sister Clara was Private Secretary to 9 New Mexico Governors. Miguel’s mother was Henrietta Chavez, stage name Conchita. She met Miguel’s father in Los Angeles, where both were Opera Singers during the 1920’s.

Aloha from Jeanette in Hawaii

Source of information from:

ILLUSTRATED HISTORY of NEW MEXICO Containing a History of this important section of the great Southwest, from the earliest period of its discovery to the present time, (1895) together with glimpses of its auspicious future:

Hon. Estanislao V. Chavez, of Socorro, figures prominently as a member of the bar of New Mexico. Mr. Chavez dates his birth in the city where he now resides, June 15, 1862. He is a representative of the distinguished family of Chavez, of New Mexico. His father, Jesus M. Chavez, F. Franco Chavez and Felipe Chavez, are cousins and are among the most prominent members of the family.

Estanislao V. Chavez received his education at St. Michael's College in Santa Fe, read law in the office of Judge Ira E. Leonard, and May 4, 1891, was admitted to the bar. Immediately after his admission to the bar he entered upon the practice of his profession in his native city, where he rapidly gained a lucrative practice, and now has the reputation of being one of the most successful and talented young lawyers in the Territory.

In 1883 Mr. Chavez was married to Miss Frances V. Martin, a native of Marshall, Texas, and a daughter of Captain Robert Martin of that State. They have two Children, Estanislao Robert and Cosette, both born in Socorro, they being the third generation born in this city.

Mr. Chavez being an ardent Democrat and a talented and popular young man, it was natural that his party should choose him to fill places of honor and trust. When only twenty four years of age, he was honored with a seat in the Territorial Legislature, where he served with credit alike to himself and to his party. At that time he was the youngest member of the House. Later, when brought out as a candidate for Probate Clerk of Socorro County, and against a very strong opponent, he was elected by the largest majority ever received by any candidate in the county, and this office he filled for six years. In 1892 he was elected Mayor of Socorro, and he was also elected a delegate to the last Democratic national convention and aided in the nomination of Grover Cleveland for President of the United States, an act for which he has since had deep regret. His friends earnestly urged him to accept the position of Secretary of the Territory of New Mexico. This honor, however, he declined in order to give his whole time and attention to his rapidly increasing law practice. Mr. Chavez is a man of fine personal appearance, is in every respect a true gentleman, and it is fair to predict that still greater honors await him in the future.

From Socorro County Historical Society, Vol. III, Publications in History:

Estanislao V. Chavez

Estanislao Chavez was born June 16, 1862 in Socorro. He was educated at St. Michael's College in Santa Fe. On May 4, 1891, he was admitted to the bar and opened a practice in Socorro. In 1882, Mr. Chavez married Miss Frances v. Martin. They had two children.

Politically, Mr. Chavez has held a seat in the Territorial Legislature, was Probate Clerk of Socorro County, and in 1892 was elected Mayor of Socorro.

From The Mountains to the Sea: page 405

Estanislao V. CHAVEZ, a prominent Los Angeles lawyer, has spent all his life in the Southwest, and before coming to California was prominent in the law, public affairs and the Democratic Party in New Mexico. He is descended from a very prominent family of New Mexico, and those especially prominent were: Francisco Javier Chavez, governor of the province of New Mexico in the years 1822-23, and the first governor under the Mexican government: Antonio Jose Chavez, who was governor in 1828-31: Mariano Chavez, who was acting governor in 1835, and Jose Chavez, who was acting governor in 1845.

Estanislao V. Chavez was born in Socorro County, New Mexico June 15, 1862, a son of Jesus Maria and Luz Torres Chavez. He attended public schools, St. Michael's College, conducted by the Christian Brothers in Santee Fe, and at the age of twenty-one became chief deputy under his father, who was county clerk, clerk of the Probate Court, county commissioner and ex-officio county assessor At the age of twenty-four, Mr. Chavez was elected county clerk to succeed his father. In1892 he was elected a member of the Territorial Legislature of New Mexico, serving two years. He was also territorial delegate from New Mexico to the Democratic National Convention at Chicago when Cleveland was nominated. Mr. Chavez read law in the office of Judge Ira E. Leonard at Socorro, and in 1902 was admitted to the bar. He practiced one year at Socorro and then at Albuquerque, where he was attorney for the Santa Fe Railroad until 1907. In that year he came to Los Angeles, and is still one of the attorneys of the Santa Fe System. In 1912 he was admitted to practice in the United States Supreme Court at Washington, D.C.

Mr. Chavez again represented New Mexico as territorial delegate to the Democratic National Convention at St. Louis in 1904. He is a member of the City Club, Knights of Columbus and a Catholic. At Socorro, New Mexico, In October, 1883, he married Fanny V. Martin. Mrs. Chavez passed away in January, 1897. They had three interesting and talented children: Estanislao R., who was recently discharged from the army: Cosette special talents are as a scenic painter; Felipe D, is now serving as official clerk of the Judge Advocate Court of the United States Forces at Vladivostok, Russia. Mr. Chavez was again married in September, 1897 to Miss Ellen M. Olsen of Wisconsin. The one daughter of this union is Henrietta Conchita, who is a student of vocal music under the widely known Professor De Lara.

03 July 2008

July 2008 NMGS Program

Saturday, July 19, 2008, 10:30 AM
Botts Hall, Albuquerque Special Collections Library
423 Edith NE, Albuquerque NM (NW Corner of Edith and Central)

Robert J. C. Baca
President of the New Mexico Genealogical Society,

Swiss Family Zimmerly:
A Socorro, New Mexico Story

Samuel and Maria Puabla (Torres) Zimmerly

It is the story of the merging of two cultures. He was a foreign-born American Civil War soldier; she was a daughter of a family as old as New Mexico itself. Together they created a unique Swiss/Hispano family. Their story begins in the early frontier days of Socorro, goes through the advent of statehood, and continues on to the present day.

Robert Baca, a former resident of Socorro, NM, is a descendant of Samuel and Maria Paubla (Torres) Zimmerly, progenitors of the New Mexico Zimmerly family. In his presentation, he will display family photos and documents, and will include a short discussion on the research methods that he used to create this story.

Certain books published by NMGS on Socorro, New Mexico records will be on sale at the presentation. Please visit the NMGS Press web page at for a full listing of NMGS books.

This program is free and open to the public.

For more information about our programs, please visit our website at

02 July 2008

Socorro Vigilantes

The book "Desperadoes of New Mexico" by F. Stanley includes a chapter called "Murder in Socorro." This is the story of the murder of a Socorro newspaper publisher in 1880 by three Baca cousins, and the subsequent arrest of the men by vigilantes. One man tried to escape by shooting a guard, but was shot dead by the same guard; another was lynched by the mob; and the third was tried and was acquited. It's an interesting story.

The book, which includes sixteen other stories, can be found online at the New Mexico Digital Collections page of the University of New Mexico Libaries website. Here is a direct link to the book. The Socorro story is on chapter 13, starting on page 221.

01 July 2008

Anastacio C. Torres, Editor of El Defensor

Photo of Anastacio Torres (click photo to get a larger image.)

Anastacio C. Torres was the nephew of my 2nd great grandfather Crespin Torres. He was the long-time editor of "El Defensor", a Spanish language newspaper from Socorro, New Mexico.

By the 1950s, El Defensor became a dual language newspaper, with most of the articles written in English. However, it still retained a single page of Spanish articles. Anastacio was still named as "Honorary Associate Editor", but since he was in his eighties at the time it was unlikely that he actually performed any of the editing for the newspaper.

The photo above has the caption "Anastacio C. Torres. Quien muchos de sus amigos lo estan congratulando en su compleano de ochenta-y-tres anos el dia 28 Febrero de 1951." I don't understand Spanish well, but I believe that it say basically that many friends congratulate him on his 83rd birthday on 28 February 1951.

I would be very appreciative if one of my readers could do a better translation of this caption.


Photo of Anastacio Torres, El Defensor - Socorro County News, Socorro, New Mexico, 1 March 1951, page 2 - Spanish section.